The Scientific Revolution started by having many questions that the church couldn't answer. The way scientist would answer their answers is by using Scientific Method. The experimented over & over again to approve or disapprove an idea. Scientist started to prove the church wrong. The Scientific Method included of : making observations , then making a "hypothesis" describing what you see , with the hypothesis you'll make predictions & test it with a experiment. When you've done that a few more times then you'll make sure you have the same results.
A theory that uses Scientific Method is what Galileo did with Aristotle theory that heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects. Galileo threw a bowling ball & a baseball from the Learning Tower of Pisa. They both fell at the same rate. He found out that different weights fall at the same speeds.